World Kidney Day started in 2006 and has not stopped growing ever since every year.This year’s theme is: “Kidney health for every one everywhere.”
Expert advised Nigerians to take preventive measures against kidney disease, as it is financially draining while the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) is not well regulated to cover the six session of dialysis.
Kidney disease can affect anybody including children, and risk factors that predispose to this disease includes infection, diabetes and hypertension, and working class people are more at risk, because of living a sedentary life and consumption of alcohol.
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) situation is a global problem, and that it is sixth fastest growing cause of death in the world.
The Principal of the Post Basic School of Nursing, Mrs Titi Segun-Agboola, explained that the body uses kidney organ to cleanse the blood, while likening it to the “environmental sanitation of the organ of the body.”
She explained that indiscriminate use of analgesic and herbs popularly known as ‘agbo’, or cocktail of analgesic is bad for the kidney, she also advised people to avoid smoking, consume plenty of water and eat lots of fruits.
kidney disease is a progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years. Each of your kidneys has about a million tiny filters, called nephrons. If nephrons are damaged, they stop working. For a while, healthy nephrons can take on the extra work. But if the damage continues, more and more nephrons shut down. After a certain point, the nephrons that are left cannot filter your blood well enough to keep you healthy.
When kidney function falls below a certain point, it is called kidney failure. Kidney failure affects your whole body, and can make you feel very ill. Untreated kidney failure can be life-threatening.
Kidney disease can be treated. The earlier you know you have it, the better your chances of receiving effective treatment.
Blood and urine tests are used to check for kidney disease.Kidney disease can progress to kidney failure.
Kidney Diseases are Common, Harmful and often Treatable
Common: Between 8 and 10% of the adult population have some form of kidney damage, and every year millions die prematurely of complications related to Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD).
The first consequence of undetected CKD is the risk of developing progressive loss of kidney function that can lead to kidney failure (also called end-stage renal disease, ESRD) which means regular dialysis treatment or a kidney transplant is needed to survive.
The second consequence of CKD is that it increases the risk of premature death from associated cardiovascular disease (i.e. heart attacks and strokes). Individuals who appear to be healthy who are then found to have CKD have an increased risk of dying prematurely from cardiovascular disease regardless of whether they ever develop kidney failure.
Treatable: If CKD is detected early and managed appropriately, the deterioration in kidney function can be slowed or even stopped, and the risk of associated cardiovascular complications can be reduced.
How is kidney function measured?
The main indicator of kidney function is your blood level of creatinine, a waste product of the body produced by muscles and excreted by the kidneys. If kidney function is reduced, creatinine accumulates in the blood leading to an elevated level when a blood test is checked.
Kidney function is best measured by an indicator called GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate) which measures the blood filtration rate by kidneys. This indicator allows doctors to determine if the kidney function is normal, and if not, to what level the reduced kidney function has deteriorated. In everyday practice, GFR can easily be estimated (eGFR), from measurement of the blood creatinine level, and taking into account, age, ethnicity and gender.
A kidney transplant is an operation to place a healthy (donor) kidney in your body to perform the functions your own diseased kidneys can no longer perform.
Kidney transplantation is considered the best treatment for many people with severe CKD because quality of life and survival are often better than in people who use dialysis. However, there is a shortage of organs available for donation. Many people who are candidates for kidney transplantation are put on a transplant waiting list and require dialysis until an organ is available.
A kidney can come from a living relative, a living unrelated person, or from a person who has died (deceased or cadaver donor); only one kidney is required to survive. In general, organs from living donors function better and for longer periods of time than those from donors who are deceased.
Overall, transplant success rates are very good. Transplants from deceased donors have an 85 to 90% success rate for the first year. That means that after one year, 85 to 90 out of every 100 transplanted kidneys are still functioning. Live donor transplants have a 90 to 95% success rate. Long-term success is good for people of all ages.
WKD 2012 was devoted to spreading the message about the importance of organ donation and kidney transplantation for people with ESRD.
Healthy kidneys clean blood and remove extra fluid in the form of urine. They also make substances that keep our body healthy. Dialysis replaces the blood cleaning functions when kidneys no longer work.
There are two types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
In hemodialysis, your blood is pumped through a dialysis machine to remove waste products and excess fluids. You are connected to the dialysis machine through a needle in a vein that is surgically enlarged (vascular access) or through a temporary plastic catheter placed in a vein. This allows blood to be removed from the body, circulate through the dialysis machine for cleansing, and then return to the body. Hemodialysis can be done at a dialysis center or at home. When done in a center, it is generally done three times a week and takes between three and five hours per session. Home dialysis is generally done three to seven times per week and takes between three and ten hours per session (often while sleeping).
Peritoneal dialysis is another form of dialysis used to remove waste products and excess water. It works on the same principle as hemodialysis, but your blood is cleaned while still inside your body rather than in a machine by adding clean fluid to your abdomen, letting it accumulate waste products from the blood and then draining it out. It is typically done at home. Some patients can perform peritoneal dialysis continuously while going about normal daily activities (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, CAPD)
Managing the chronic condition
Some conditions increase the risk of chronic kidney disease (such as diabetes). Controlling the condition can significantly reduce the chances of developing kidney failure. Individuals should follow their doctor’s instructions, advice, and recommendations.
A healthy diet, including plenty of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and lean meats or fish will help keep blood pressure down.
Regular physical exercise is ideal for maintaining healthy blood pressure levels; it also helps control chronic conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. Individuals should check with a doctor that an exercise program is suited to their age, weight, and health.
Avoiding certain substances
Including abusing alcohol and drugs. Avoid long-term exposure to heavy metals, such as lead. Avoid long-term exposure to fuels, solvents, and other toxic chemicals.